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上海高考英语词汇表(中) 2012年02月20日 11:34:56

call         vt. shout, cry大声说出;喊,叫;order or ask sb to come by telephoning打电话给;

把…叫做; make a short visit  拜访

              n. (一次)电话

词组       call at                                                       拜访某地

              call for                                                     要求;把…召来;需要,要求

              call in                                                      收回,回收;请来(某人)

              call off                                                     取消

call on                                                      拜访某人;号召,要求;恳请(某人)做某事)

              call out                                                     大声地说

              call up                                                      打电话;召集,征召(入役);使人想起

 

calm       adj.  (of the sea) without large waves; still(指海洋)无浪的,平静的;

 not excited, nervous or agitated; quiet  镇静的

辨析       calm              quiet              silent       still

              calm 表示“平静的,镇定的”,可以表示人内心的平静状态也可指外界的平静状态

              He remained calm in face of danger.

              After the storm, the sea was rather calm.

quiet表示“安静的,宁静的”。用于人时,表示性格温和;用于物时,表示相对地没有嘈声及骚动的安静状态,即使有声音,声音也很低。

              He was a quiet man who didn’t let small things upset himself.

              She enjoys a quiet life in the small village.

silent表示“安静的,无声的,沉默的”,主要用于人,表示不说话或很少说话,尤指沉默寡言。它强调没有声音,不指任何动作。

              He promised to keep silent on the matter.

              All was silent again after the accident.

still表示“寂静的,静止的,不动的”,强调人,事物或环境绝对静止。没有动作与声音。它不能用来指人的心理状态。

              Please stand still while I take your photo.

 

campus   n. grounds and buildings of a university or college   (大学的)校园,学校校园

词组       campus life                                               大学生活

              live on campus                                          住在校内

 

candidate n. person who applies for a job is nominated for election  候选人;求职者

词组       candidate for president                               总统候选人

              candidate for manager                                经理应聘者

 

capture   vt. take (sb/sth) as a prisoner俘虏,捕获;take or win (sth) by force or skill 夺得,占领

              n. 虏获,捕获

辨析       arrest      capture           catch       seize

              arrest 逮捕,拘留

              The police arrested the thief.

              capture捕获,虏获

              We captured him alive.

              catch捉,抓住

              The boy caught a bird.

              seize       (突然地)抓住

              They seized him by he collar.

 

care        vi. be worried; concerned  关心;considering how much 介意;

look after sb照顾,护理

              n. 照管;关心;关怀;小心

词组       care about                                                 关心;(因关心)而担忧;介意,在乎

care for                                                    照顾,照料;(常用于否定句和疑问句)喜欢

              take care                                                   当心,注意

              take care of                                               照料,照顾;处理

 

carry     vt. support the weight of (sb/sth) and take (him/it) from place to place

运载;传送;携带;担负                  

词组       carry away                                                使失去自制力,使着迷,使忘情

              carry on (it)                                              继续,坚持;从事,经营

              carry ( it )out                                            执行,贯彻;实现

              carry through                                            (不顾困难等)完成;使度过困难(危险)

        (newspaper) carry news                 (报刊)刊登新闻

 

case        n.  instance or example of the occurrence of sth  事例;案例;情况

词组       in any case                                                无论如何,不管怎样

              in case                                                      假使,以防万一

              in case of                                                  假如,如果发生

              in no case                                                        无论如何也不,决不

              in most cases                                             在大多数情况下   

              civil case                                                  民事案件

              a case in point                                           恰当的例子

例句    Take the umbrella, just in case.                   带上伞,以防下雨。

              Put down my address in case you forget.      写下我的地址万一你忘记。

              In case of fire, ring the alarm bell.                     如遇火警,请按警铃。

              In no case will I go with you.                            我决不会跟你走。

He may be late, in which case we’d better wait.

他或许迟到了,如果这样的话,我们最好等等。

 

cast        v.  throw (sth) esp. deliberately or with force   扔;投;抛

词组       cast away                                                  丢掉

              cast sb. into prison(=throw…into prison)     把…投进监狱

              cast a shadow on                                       投下阴影

 

catch      vt. capture sb/sth after a chase 赶上;抓住; understand 理解;感染;

  (cause sth to) become fixed, stuck (使)钩住

词组       catch a bus/ train                                     赶上车

              catch sb. smoking/ cheating                        无意中抓住某人吸烟(作弊)

              catch the last word                                     理解最后一句

              catch a cold                                              感冒

              be caught in the rain                                  被雨淋

              be caught on a stone                                  被石头绊住

              catch fire                                                  着火

              catch sb. by the arm                                   抓住某人的胳膊

              catch up with                                            赶上

              be caught in the door                                 被门夹住

 

cause      n. that which produces an effect; thing, event, person, etc that makes sth happen

原因,起因;

vt. aim, principle or movement that is strongly defended or supported  n. 事业

                 使产生,引起

词组       revolutionary cause                                    革命事业

              the cause of the fire                                          火灾的起因

              cause trouble                                             引起麻烦

              cause and effect                                         因果关系

辨析       cause              reason

              cause指造成一种事实或现象的“原因”,尤指自然原因或客观原因。

              reason指说明一种看法或行为的“理由”,它往往是通过逻辑推理而得出的。

           Give me your reasons for refusing to go there.告诉你拒绝去的理由。

              Heat is the cause of the expansion of matter. 热是物体膨胀的原因。

 

cease       v. / n.  stop  停止

辨析       pause      cease       stop

              pause指行进间的暂停,间歇。

cease正式用语,指某种状态逐渐或突然终止,含不复存在之意。其后可接to do与doing形式,但其意义相同。

stop普通用语,指突然停止或使不动,接不定式表示停下来去做某事,接动名词表示停止正在做的事。

           The old man paused to look around himself.老人停下来环顾了一下四周。

              He ceased breathing..                                 他停止了呼吸。

              He stopped to see the traffic light.               他停下来看看红绿灯。

 

ceremony  n.  formal act or series of formal acts performed on a religious or public occasion

典礼;礼节,礼仪

结构       the opening ceremony                                开幕式

              the graduation ceremony                                   毕业典礼

              Don’t stand on ceremony.                           不必拘礼

 

certain    adj. specific but not named or stated 某;sure beyond doubt 确实的,肯定的      

词组       be certain to do sth. = be sure to do sth.      肯定…

              be certain       of  = be sure of/ about               对…确信,有把握

              a certain = some                                        某个(后接单数名词)

              It’s certain that …                                     肯定会…

              for certain = for sure                                 确信地,确定地

              with certainty                                            确信地

展开    certainly  adv. 当然

certainty  n.   当然

 

certificate   n. official written or printed statement that may be used as proof or evidence of

certain facts    证书;执照

辨析       certificate              diploma          license

diploma常指经过一段时间的学习和培训而得到的官方学历证明,表示“文凭,毕业证书”

              certificate指证明某人某种事实的证件,证书。

              license  指执照,许可证。

               a birth certificate                                       出生证

                  a marriage certificate                                 结婚证

                 a health certificate                                     健康证

                  a college diploma                                      大学文凭

                  a high school diploma                                中学文凭

                a diploma in computer                                   电脑文凭

                a driving license                                    驾驶执照

 

chain      n. (length of) connected metal links or rings, used for hauling or supporting weights or

for fastening or restraining things 链条series of connected things       一连串,一系列;

group of shops or hotels owned by the same company联号,连锁店

词组       a chain of happenings                                一连串事件

              a fast-food chain                                       快餐连锁店

 

challenge  n.  invitation or call( to sb) to take part in a game, contest, fight etc to prove who is

better, stronger, more able, etc )挑战,艰巨的任务

               vt.    invite sb. To do sth. ; question the truth; 向……挑战;对…质疑              

               vi.   提出挑战

词组       meet the challenge                                     迎接挑战

              challenge the justice                                   质疑公正性

 

chance    n.  way in which things happen without any cause that can be seen or understood; luck;

fortune  机会;可能性

词组       by chance                                                 偶然,碰巧

              by any chance                                           万一,也许

              take a chance                                            冒险,投机   

              Chances are that…                                     很有可能…

              one has a chance or opportunity to do sth. / of doing sth某人有机会(有可能)做某事

              There is a chance/ some possibility that…    很有可能…

辨析       chance     possibility

chance指偶然的,意料之外的机会,侧重无法推测的因素。它的后面可接不定式,介词短语及从句。

opportunity指符合人们希望和愿望的机会,含有利于实现抱负的意思。它的后面可接不定式与介词短语,但不能接从句。

              chance 也可做“可能性”解,而opportunity不可。

                 I never miss a chance of playing basketball.

                    I had several opportunities to go abroad; but I gave up all.

                    There is a chance that the sick child will get recovered.

 

character n. mental or moral qualities that make a person, group, nation, etc different from others  品格;性格;person in a novel, play 角色

辨析       character        characteristic          nature  personality              feature   

character 表示“性格,品质”,指人格,品质,操守等,指道德方面的品质,如坚强,软弱等。它是不可数名词。

characteristic 表示“特色,特征”,指区别其他人或事物的独特的特征,可用于人,也可指物及抽象东西。它是可数名词。

nature  表示“本性,天性”,强调人或物的本质,有不可改变之意。它可做可数或不可数名词。

personality 表示“个性,为人”,是指某个特定人物的特性,侧重指社交方面及人与人的关系。它既是可数又是不可数名词。

              feature 表示“相貌,特征”,还可做动词用,“为…之特色”。

                 He is a man of strong character.                      性格坚强的人

                    character training                                          性格培养

                    Windy days are characteristic of March.          多风天气是三月的特点。

                    Cheerfulness is one of his characteristics.         快活是他的特性之一。

                    What they had done revealed their real nature. 他们做的揭示他们的真实本性。

                    The decoration of a room reflects the owner’s personality.

                                                         房间的装饰能反映主人的个性。

                     a man with handsome features                      一个相貌英俊的人

                     a film that features a new French actress.

一部以一位法国新人女演员为特色的电影

展开     characteristic n. 特色,特征; adj. 特有的

 

charge    n. price asked for goods or service  费用;act of putting amount of electricity put into a

battery  充电;claim that a person has done wrong, esp. a formal claim that he has

committed a crime控告                        

          vt.  as an amount as a price索价;put a charge into sth.充电;accuse sb. of sth.控告

词组       in charge of                                                     负责,主管

              in / under sb.’s charge = in /under the charge of sb.处于(某人)的管理(照看)之下

              take charge of                                                开始管理,接管

              free of charge                                                  免费

              charge sb. some money  for sth.                         向某人为某事收费多少

charge sb. with = accuse sb. of                           指控某人犯有(…的罪行或过失)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit Five

 

cheat      vt. /n. act dishonestly or unfairly in order to win an advantage or profit 

欺骗,作弊;骗子

词组       cheat sb. out of money                                      骗某人的钱

              cheat in the exam                                             考试作弊

              a complete cheat                                               一个十足的骗子

 

check      v./n.  make sure of sth by examining or investigating it  检查,核对

词组       check in                                                          (在旅馆,机场等)登记,报到

              check out                                                         结帐离去,办妥手续离去

              check up (on)                                                   检查,核实

              in check                                                          受抑制的,受控制的

 

choose    v.  pick out or select (sb/sth that one prefers on considers the best, most suitable, etc)

  from a number of alternatives  选择

词组       take your choice                                               随你选

              choose to do                                                    愿意做某事,选择做某事

              cannot choose but do                                        除了…别无选择

辨析       choose     select

choose 表示“挑选,选择,选举”,使用范围最广,指从众多的对象中挑选,这种挑选常取决于个人的意志与判断,不强调客观标准。它所选择的对象可以是不同种类的,可以是有形的或无形的。它带有最终选定的含义,即表示选定后不再变化。

select表示“挑选,精选”,语气比choose重,多用于正式场合。它指仔细地,审慎地精选,强调客观性,而不是主观性。它所挑选的对象可以是有形的或是无形的,但一定是同一种类的。

             In the new store, there are several models to choose from.

                He chose Mary for his wife.

                You have to choose between life and death.

                The best machines were selected and sent to the exhibition.

                He selected a birthday present for his wife.

展开              selections of works (选集)

choice     n. 选择,挑选

 

circle      vt.  move in a circle, esp. in the air  环绕;圈出

              vi.  move in a circle 盘旋

  1.  curved line every point on which is the same distance from the centre圆;环状物;group of people who are connected by having the same interests, profession,etc.

圈子,阶层

词组       circle the answer                                              圈出答案

              circle the earth                                                        绕着地球转

              circle over the landing-field                               在降落场上空盘旋

              sit in a circle                                                    围者圈子坐

              a large circle of friends                                     一大群朋友

 

circumstance  n.  condition of fact connected with an event or action情况,情形;环境

词组       under the circumstances                                    在这种情况下,(情况)既然如此

              under no circumstances                                     无论如何不,决不

 

civil        adj.  of or relating to the citizens of a country   公民的,国内的,文明的

词组       civil rights                                                       公民权利

              civil war                                                          内战

              civil society                                                     公众社会

              civil aviation                                                    民航

              civil life                                                          平民生活

辨析       civil        domestic         native

              civil 见上

              domestic 指“家务的;国产的,本国的”

              native 指“出生地,本性的,本土的”

       domestic appliances                                          家用器具

              GDP = Gross Domestic Products                        国民生产总值

              domestic news                                                  国内新闻

              native ability                                                    天生的能力

              native speakers                                                 说本族语的人

 

claim      vt. demand or request (sth) because it is or one believes it is one’s right or one’s property                (根据权利)要求;认领;

vi. state or declare (sth) as a fact (without being able to prove it) 声称, 提出要求;主张

              n. statement of sth as a fact 要求;认领demand for a sum of money索赔,声称,断言

例句    Don’t claim to know what you don’t know.         不要不懂装懂。

              A Canadian doctor claimed to have found a cure for SARS.

一个加拿大医生声称已经找到非典的治愈办法。

              Has anyone claimed this watch?                       有人认领这块手表吗?

              a claim for damage                                           损坏索赔

 

clear       adj.  easy to see through; free from obstruction    清楚的,清晰的;畅通无阻的

              vt.   remove sth. from 清扫,清除

词组       clear away                                                       把…清除掉,收拾

              clear off                                                          离开,溜掉

              clear out                                                          清除,把…腾空;走开,赶出

              clear up                                                           澄清,解决;(天)放晴;清理

辨析       clear              clean

做形容词时,clean指不含污物的(反: dirty肮脏的);clear指干净透明的(反: muddy 浑浊的)。clean water干净的水,clear water 清澈的水。

              做动词时,clean 指除去尘埃或脏物;clear指收拾不要的东西。

              clean the room                                                        打扫房间

              clear the table                                                  (饭后)收拾餐桌

 

climate   n.  regular pattern of weather conditions (temperature, rainfall, winds, etc) of a

particular region 气候

辨析       climate           weather

              weather指特定某日,某一地方的天气变化,为不可数名词。

              climate 指一个地区长期的天气状况,气候,为可数名词。

           We had fine weather that day.                                   那天天气很好。

              The island has a warm climate                           那个岛上气候温暖。

 

close       v.  (cause sth to) move so as to cover an opening; shut   关,闭

                 near in space and time     adj. 接近的

词组       close to                                                           在…的近旁;接近于

              a close game                                                    势均力敌的比赛

              close friend                                                      亲密朋友

              close down                                                      关闭,歇业

              come close to sth./ doing                               接近结束

 

combine  vi. /vt.  (cause things to )join or mix together to form a whole 结合,联合;使结合,

使联合

辨析       combine         connect          join         link

              combine“结合”,多用于抽象或无形的东西。

              connect指紧密地“联系”,所联系的东西仍保持自己的特性。

              join最普通用语

link除与connect, join含有相同的意思,表示“连接”外,还指用环状物等连接,也可用于比喻意义。

Combine enthusiasm with perseverance, and we will succeed.

                                                   有了热情,再加上努力,我们就会成功。

                The two towns are connected by a railway.      这两个镇有铁路连接。

                Join an island to the mainland with a bridge. 用桥梁将岛和大陆连接。

                Many people link the number 13 with bad luck.许多人把13 与不幸联系起来。

展开   combined  adj. 结合的

combination     n. 组合,结合

 

come       vi.  move to, towards  来

词组       come about                                               (尤指看似不可控制的事)发生

              come across=bump into=knock into=           偶然发现(某物);偶然遇到(某人)

              meet with=run into=come upon                  碰见(困难等)

come along                                               进展,进行;到来,出现;跟(某人)一起去,一起来

              come down with                                        患…病

              come into being/existence                           开始存在,产生,形成

              come into effect/force                                (法律,规章等)开始生效

              come into use                                            开始投入使用

           come into service                                      开始运营

come on                                                   (表示催促,鼓励,挑战,恳求等)来吧,快点,开始;来临;袭来;(剧,电影等)上演;

come out                                                  (消息,真实情况,秘密等)被揭露,传出;(结果等)被宣布;出版,发表;(其后通常接as引导的短语或从句)结果是;(品质等)显现,表露

come to                                                    总数为,合计达;想出,想到,苏醒;达到(某种状态,情况)

              come up                                                   出现,发生;走上前来,走近;发芽

              come up with                                            提出;提供(主意,建议,答案等)

 

command   vt. (of sb in authority) tell (sb) that he must do sth; order 命令; be in control of   指挥;掌握;deserve and get (sth) 博得

n. control; authority 指挥,掌握

词组       have a good command of                           精通,掌握

              command one’s respect                              博得尊敬

              take command of                                       指挥,掌握

展开    commander     n. 司令员,指挥官

 

commit   vt. do (sth illegal, wrong or foolish )   犯(错误,罪行),干(坏事);

give or transfer sb/sth to (a state or place) for safe keeping, treatment etc.委托;提交

词组       commit…to                                             把…托付给,把…置于

              commit oneself                                         使承担义务,使承诺

              commit suicide                                          自杀

              commit crime                                           犯罪

              commit mistakes                                       犯错误

              commit murder                                         谋杀

              commit offence                                         冒犯,得罪

 

common  adj.  usual or familiar happening or found often and in many places

一般的,普通的;共同的,常见的;通常的

词组       common people=ordinary people                普通人

              common knowledge=common sense            常识

              common disease                                        常见病

              common interest                                        共同的兴趣

              seek the common ground                            求同

              common language                                     共同的语言

              have sth. in common                                  有共同之处

辨析       ordinary         common         general           usual              normal

              ordinary指人或事物和普通的没有两样,因而显得平常,随处可见。

              common指许多事物或许多人都有的,平淡无奇。

              general 指较少例外。比common更普及,大众化。

              usual指由于时间长而形成的,习惯的,通常的。

              normal 强调“正常的”

           The mark shows that he is an ordinary student.成绩表明他是一个普通学生

              Snow is common inNorth China.               雪在中国北方很常见。

              It’s a matter of general interest.                   这是一件普遍感兴趣的事情。

              We’ll meet at the usual time.                      我们按老时间见面。

              ordinary-looking                                      相貌普通的

              normal people                                           正常人

              normal temperature                                          体温正常

 

communicate   v. exchange information, news, ideas, etc.通讯,交流;

pass on sth; transmit sth传播

词组       communicate with                                     与…交流

              communicate one’s idea/feeling/                  把观点/感情/知识/消息传达给某人

knowledge/news to sb.

 

展开    communication  n. 传播;交流,交际

 

company n.  group of people united for business or commercial purposes   公司;商号;

being together with another or others 陪伴

词组       in sb.’s company                                       和某人一道

              keep sb. company                                      给某人做伴

              for company                                             陪伴,做伴

例句    I don’t want to see a boy of mine in their company.

              He stayed at home to keep his wife company.

              As the journey was a long one, I took a friend with me for company.

展开    companion  n. 伴侣,同伴

 

compare vt. examine people or things to see how they are alike and how they are different

辨析,对照

词组       compare sb./sth. with                                 与…相比较

              compare sb./ sth. to                                          把…比做;与…相比

              compare with                                            可与…相比,可与…匹敌

              compared with/ to =in comparison with              与…相比;和…比起来

              be comparable to/with                                可辨析的,比得上的

         beyond compare                                        无与伦比

              No one is comparable to her in beauty.

              She is pretty beyond compare.

              Books can be compared to friends.

              Compared with our small apartment, our uncle’s house seemed like a palace.

              He can’t compare with Shakespeare as a writer of tragedies.

展开   comparison n. 辨析

comparative      adj. 相辨析而言的,相对的

comparable       adj. 可辨析的,类似的;比得上的

 

compete  v.  try to win sth by defeating others who are trying to do the same        竞赛,竞争

词组       compete against                                         和…(竞)赛

              compete for                                              (和…)争夺,比赛…夺取

              compete with                                            和…竞争,竞赛

展开    competition  n. 竞争,比赛

competitive  adj. 竞争性的,比赛的;喜欢竞争的

competitor  n. 参加竞赛者,竞争者

competent  adj. 胜任,称职,有能力做某事

competency  n. 胜任,能力

 

complain  vi  say that one is dissatisfied, unhappy, etc  抱怨;发牢骚

                 vt.  抱怨,诉说

词组       complain to sb. of / about sth.=                   向某人抱怨某事

              make complaints to sb. of /about sth.

展开    complaint n. 抱怨

 

complex  adj. made up of( usu. several) closely connected parts    组合的,复杂的

辨析       complex 指“许多简单部分合成的”

              complicated指“许多部分互相纠合,难懂,难解”

           complex sentence                                      复合句

              complicated questions                                复杂的问题

展开    complicated    adj. 复杂的

 

compliment    n. /v.  expression of praise, admiration, approval, etc.赞美

词组       pay a compliment to sb. on sth.                   赞美某人

              compliment sb. on / for sth.                        赞美某人某事

              receive / gain /win compliment from sb.     赢得…的赞美

 

compose  vt.  (of parts or elements of sth) form ( a whole); constitute   组成,构成;

      write (music, opera, etc)  创作(乐曲,诗歌等)

               vi.   创作,作曲

词组       be composed of = be made up of = consist of由…组成

              compose a poem                                        作诗

              compose a novel                                        写小说

展开    composer n. 作曲家

composition n. 作文;乐曲

 

conceal  vt.   keep sth/ sb from being seen or known about; hide sth/ sb

隐藏;隐瞒;掩盖(与hide同义,但conceal更正式,语气较强)

词组       conceal sth. from sb.                                  向某人隐藏某事

 

concentrate  v.  focus (one’s attention, effort, etc) exclusively and intensely on sth, not

thinking about other less important things  集中,专心

词组       concentrate on=focus on = be absorbed in    全神贯注于

              concentrate/focus one’s attention /mind/ energy on集中注意力/精力于

              concentration camp                                    集中营

辨析       concentrate    focus

              concentrate其宾语可以是具体的东西或抽象的东西。

focus指“光线集中到一个焦点上”,其引申意义与concentrate大致相同,但一般不同具体事物构成宾语。

展开    concentration        n. 专心;集中(注意力)

 

concern  n. thing that is important or interesting to sb.有关的事;worry, anxiety关心

              vt. 1. be the business of (sb)与…有关;

2. worry or trouble (sb) 使关心;使担心

              vi. 关心;担心;忧虑

词组       show concern for                                       对…表示关心

              be concerned about/ for                              担心的,烦恼的,忧虑的

              as far as sth./ sb. be concerned          

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