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记住名字和脸的六个简易方法 2012年11月08日 12:24:59

摘要: 如何记住初次见面的人脸部及名称可不是件容易的事。尤其是在重要复杂的社交场合能够记住一个初次邂逅的人的名字更不容易。本文提供了六种简易的方法,让你可以轻松记住一个人的脸部及名字。我们每个人都希望能够记住自己遇到的人的名字,尤其是那些在新的社交场合遇到的人的名字。有的社交场合纯属娱乐,而有的则涉及到更高层的厉害关系。例如,在接受新的工作面试后你很快见到了你的未来主管,但你却早已把他的名字忘得一干二净。不幸的是,忘了他的名字就等于你将失去这份工作。在宴会上与人交往或者是经朋友介绍与人进行随意交流,当再次见到他们时你可能还会表现出笨拙的社交特征,你一定在挣扎着想知道(或假装知道)他们的名字。

Everyone would like to be able to remember the names of people we meet, especially people we meet in new social situations. Some of these situations are purely for enjoyment, and others have higher stakes. You’re being interviewed for a new job, for example, and as soon as you’re introduced to your potential supervisor, the name has flown completely out of your consciousness. Unfortunately, you’ll lose the job prospect as quickly as you’ve lost that name. When it comes to meeting people at parties, or even in casual conversation when introduced by a mutual friend, you also will appear to be a social klutz when you see that person again and must flounder (or fake) knowing the new people’s names.

We know it’s bad to forget names of new people, but looking at the flip side, we also know how much it means when we are able to call people by name the next time we see them. Whether it’s five minutes or five years later, that remembered name will make you seem (and feel) like someone who really cares about others. There is hardly a more impressive feat than coming up with the name of someone you met only once or twice.

 我们都知道忘记新结识的人的名字可不是件好事,不过倒过来看,我们也清楚当我们下次再见到他们时能叫出他们的名字会意味着什么。无论是时隔五分钟还是五年后你依然记得住他人的名字,这会让你看起来是个真正关心他人的人。能够说出某个你仅仅见过一两次的人的名字,这着实是个少之又少的壮举。

Some people seem to be born with this ability to associate a face and a name. You may watch them with awe and envy, never dreaming that you could be one of these people too. They are probably also the same people who can watch a TV show or movie and recite not only the names but the previous roles of the actors, from minor characters to leading men and women. With the tips you’ll learn shortly, you’ll be well on your way to becoming one of these face memory champs. Great name memories can be made, if not born.

有的人似乎天生就能够将一个人的脸部同其名字联系在一起。你对这些人的关注也许是出于敬畏与嫉妒的心理,从未想过你可能也是他们当中的一员。他们也有可能是同一类人,对于看过的电视剧或电影,无论是对其中的小人物还是大人物他们都能过目不忘地一一道出这些人物的名字和曾扮演过的角色。接下来你很快会掌握一些建议,通过这些建议你将步入让自己成为一名面部记忆高手的正轨。

Interestingly, our ability to distinguish faces is much better than our ability to name those faces. Researchers estimate that we are all “face experts” who can distinguish hundreds, if not thousands, of faces we see over a lifetime. The trick is associating those many, many faces with the names that belong to them.

 我们对面部的识别能力远远胜过能对号入座呼出其名的能力。据有关研究人员估算,我们都是一生能够识别数百张乃至数千张面孔的“识脸专家(face experts)”。其中的诀窍是将这些脸与其相对应的名字联系起来(下文称联想记忆)。

Before getting to those 6 foolproof name memory tips, let’s see what we can learn from a few recent studies. First, we’ll look at the role of the face itself vs. the context in which you see a face. You may think that it’s a good idea to help your face memory by looking at a person’s hair, ears, or neck and shoulders. However, British psychologist Charlie D. Frowd and colleagues (2012) found that focusing on these external cues was a bad idea. They investigated face memory using a software program that either highlighted, altered, or removed completely the external cues such as hair and even ears. The software is used in providing composite pictures of potential suspects in an eyewitness situation. In a series of experiments, Frowd and his team showed definitively that people are most likely to remember faces when they do not look at those external cues. The best recognition occurred when people saw the faces without the distraction of the surrounding information.

 在开始学习以下六个拙笨的名字记忆方法之前,我们先考察几个近期的研究案例,希望可以从中了解一些东西。首先,我们将考察面部本身的作用以及你在观察某一张脸时的背景。你也许会认为通过观察一个人的头发、耳朵、颈部或肩部来辅助你对这个人的面部记忆是个不错的想法。然而,据英国心理学家查理.弗劳德(Charlie D. Frowd)及其伙伴研究发现(2012年),注重这些外部特征不是一种理想的方法。他们通过软件来突出、改变或是彻底将头发及耳朵等这些外部特征移除后对面部记忆进行了研究。此软件用于合成由犯罪现场目击证人提供的嫌疑犯的照片。经过无数次实验,弗劳德及其伙伴得出这样一个肯定的结论:人们在忽略这些外部特征时更有可能记住被观察者的面部。也就是说,人们识别一张脸的最佳方法是没有外界信息的干扰(译注:这里所谓的外界信息主要指头发、耳朵、颈部、肩部等)。

In the second experiment, conducted by University of Victoria neuroscientists Iris Gordon and James Tanaka (2011), participants looked at faces and names while hooked up to a brain scan that measured the brain’s electrical response to stimuli. The question they investigated pertains to the timing of our acquisition of faces and names. To make a very complex story short, Gordon and Tanaka concluded that one of the reasons we forget a person’s name is that we see the person before we know the person’s name. Knowing the name first gives you an anchor that you can use later to associate with the person’s face. This isn’t always practical, but as I’ll point out later, it’s definitely a useful strategy in many situations.

此外,维多利亚大学的神经科学家伊利斯.戈登(Iris Gordon)与詹姆斯.田中(James Tanaka)还做了这样一个实验(2011年)。他们将实验参与者连接到测量脑电刺激响应的脑扫描仪并让他们观察他人的面部与名字,目的是研究人们获取面部信息和名字信息的响应时间。长话短说,最后戈登与田中得出的实验结论是:我们之所以会忘记一个人的名字,原因之一是我们先见其人后闻其名。事先知道一个人的名字是一种导航定位,随后你才可以将这一定位与其对应的面孔联系起来。这一方法并不是随时都实用,但正如本文后面所述,它确实在是众多场合下的一种适用方法。

Finally, let’s look at an experiment conducted at Tokyo Gakugei University in Koganei, Japan by Takahiro Sekiguchi (2011) which shows the tricks used by people good at face memory. Participants were hooked up to an eye movement tracker while they looked at new faces. Name memory wasn’t actually measured in this study, but the findings shed light on what people with good face memory actually do. Those participants with the best face memory, when looking at the faces they would be tested on, fixated most of their attention on the eye region. They did not look significantly at any other part of the face, including the nose, mouth, chin, hair, cheeks, ears, or even forehead. To remember a face, you need to look right at the person’s eyes.

Now let’s put these studies together with some other facts about memory for our six face memory tips.

最后,让我们看一组由东京学芸大学高弘山本(Takahiro Sekiguchi)所做的实验(2011年)。他们的实验目的是找出擅长于面部记忆者的诀窍。实验参与者在关注新的面孔时与眼运动跟踪器连接。该研究没有设置名字记忆测量项目,而实验结果主要是为了解释擅长面部记忆者的实际行为。结果表明那些最擅于面部记忆的实验者,在注视新的面孔时他们的注意力主要集中在眼区。他们并不关注鼻、嘴、下巴、头发、脸颊、耳朵以及前额等任何面部的其他部位。也就是说,要记住某个人的面孔,你只需要关注这个人的眼睛即可。

    因此,我们将这些研究结果组织在一起,并结合其他一些事实而得出以下六条面部记忆方法。

Look at the person’s eyes. The face itself, and specifically the eyes, contain the window not just to the soul, but to good face memory. The eyes are a feature of a person least likely to vary over time or under different circumstances. Apart from the aging process, which adds a few wrinkles here and there, people’s eyes don’t really change. By focusing on this nonvarying piece of anatomy, you’ll be less tricked by changes in hair length or color, clothing (which definitely changes), and even body shape and height (which also change).

1、注视一个人的眼

    脸尤其是眼睛不仅是一个人心灵的窗口,还是面部记忆的窗口。无论在任何情况下,眼睛是一个人最不可能随时间变迁而改变的特征。除了会因岁月而留下一些皱纹外,人的眼睛实际上是不会变化的。只要留意这一不变的特征,你很少会被头发长短与颜色、着装甚至是体型及身高的等的变化而蒙骗。

Use “deep” processing of information . When you’re trying to learn a word list, for instance, you should not just look at the words, or even think about how they sound. Your best memory will be for those items whose meaning you contemplate. Put those words in a sentence or form your own associations to them, no matter how oddball they may seem. In fact, the more oddball the better. When it comes to faces, this is a trick that memory experts strongly advise. Form associations between a person’s name and that person’s face (particularly the eyes). Think of what the name reminds you of (“Tina” might turn into “tea”), and paste that association onto the person’s face. This National Geographic special shows an impressive memory expert showing his tricks for learning names (20 at once!).

 2、信息的深加工

    例如,在学习单词表时你不应当只关心单词本身,甚至还要考虑单词的发音。你的最佳记忆将是留给那些意义与你的期望相符的词项。尽管看起来可能很古怪,但用这些单词造句或形成你对他们的独特联想却是一种很好的记忆方法。事实上,越古怪越好。涉及到面部记忆时,记忆专家们极力推崇这一方法。在一个人的名字及其面部间形成联想。首先是联想一个人的名字给以你的提示(如从“Tina”联想到“tea”),然后再将该提示对号入座地贴到这个人的面部。据国家地理学专家表示,一个超群的记忆专家通常都是采用这样的诀窍来记忆名称的(一次可记住20个名称)。

Find out the names ahead of time, when possible . As the brain scan study showed, people did better at learning names when they saw the names ahead of time. This is very possible to do when you’re going on an interview (assuming you get the schedule first) or to a party where guests have RSVP’d to a public link. It’s no help if you’re meeting someone for the first time with no advance war

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阅读(2616)| 评论(2)

  1. 陶原峰AarSone 2012年11月08日 12:29:01 举报
  2. 甄海龙 2012年11月08日 22:20:43 举报
    你的很好记。。

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