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2012年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)试题

2012-01-07 21:48

2012年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)试题

Section I   Use of English

 

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

 

Millions of Americans and foreigners see GI. Joe as a mindless war toy, the symbol of American military adventurism, but that’s not how it need to be. To the men and women who 1 in World War Ⅱand the people they liberated, the GI was the 2 man grown into hero, the poor farm kid torn away from his home, the guy who 3 all the burdens of battles, who slept in cold foxholes, who went without the 4 of food and shelter, who stuck it out and drove back the Nazi reign of murder. This was not a volunteer soldier, not someone well paid, 5 an average guy up 6 the best trained, best equipped, fiercest, most brutal enemies in centuries.

His name isn’t much.GI. is just a military abbreviation 7 Government Issue, and it was on all of the articles 8 to soldiers. And Joe? A common name for a guy who never 9 it to the top. Joe Blow, Joe Palooka, Joe Magrac…a working class name. The United States has 10 had a president or vice- president or secretary of state Joe.

GI. Joe had a 11 career fighting German, Japanese, and Korean troops. He appears as a character or a 12 of American personalities, in the 1945 movie The Story of GI. Joe, based on the last days of war correspondent Emie Pyle. Some of the soldiers Poly 13 portrayed themselves in the film. Pyle was famous for covering the 14 side of the war, writing about the dirt-snow-and-mud soldiers, not how many miles were 15 or what towns were captured or liberated. His reports 16 the “Willie” cartoons of famed Stars and Stripes artist Bill Maulden. Both men 17 the dirt and exhaustion of war, the 18 of civilization that the soldiers shared with each other and the civilians: coffee, tobacco, whiskey, shelter, sleep.19 Egypt, France, and a dozen more countries, GI. Joe was American soldiers, 20 the most important person in their lives.   

 

1. [A]performed          [B]served                [C]rebelled              [D]betrayed

2. [A]actual                  [B]common             [C]special                [D] normal

3. [A]bore                    [B]caused               [C]removed            [D] loaded

4. [A]necessities          [B]facilities             [C]commodities      [D] properties

5. [A]and                       [B]nor                      [C]but                      [D]hence

6. [A]for                      [B]into                    [C]from                   [D]against

7. [A]meaning                [B]implying              [C]symbolizing          [D]claiming

8. [A]handed out            [B]turned over           [C]brought back        [D]passed down

9. [A]pushed                  [B]got                      [C]made                   [D]managed

10. [A]ever                      [B]never                   [C]either                   [D]neither

11. [A]disguised               [B]disturbed              [C]disputed               [D]distinguished

12. [A]company               [B]collection            [C]community           [D]colony

13. [A]employed              [B]appointed             [C]interviewed          [D]questioned

14. [A]ethical                  [B]military                [C]political               [D]human

15. [A] ruined                [B] commuted        [C] patrolled           [D] gained

16. [A]paralleled            [B] counteracted     [C] duplicated        [D] contradicted

17. [A] neglected             [B] avoided               [C]emphasized           [D] admired

18. [A] stages                  [B]illusions             [C] fragments         [D] advances

19. [A] With                 [B] To                     [C] Among              [D] Beyond

20. [A] on the contrary  [B] by this means    [C] from the outset [D] at that point

 

Section II  Reading Comprehension

 

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Homework has never been terribly popular with students and even many parents, but in recently years it has been particularly scorned. School districts across the country, most recently Los Angeles Unified, are revising their thinking on this educational ritual. Unfortunately, L.A. Unified has produced an inflexible policy which mandates that with the exception of some advanced courses, homework may no longer count for more than 10% of a student’s academic grade.

This rule is meant to address the difficulty that students from impoverished or chaotic homes might have in completing their homework. But the policy is unclear and contradictory. Certainly, no homework should be assigned that students cannot complete on their own or that they cannot do without expensive equipment. But if the district is essentially giving a pass to students who do not do their homework because of complicated family lives, it is going riskily close to the implication that standards need to be lowered for poor children.

District administrators say that homework will still be a part of schooling; teachers are allowed to assign as much of it as they want. But with homework counting for no more than 10% of their grades, students can easily skip half their homework and see very little difference on their report cards. Some students might do well on state tests without completing their homework, but what about the students who performed well on the tests and did their homework? It is quite possible that the homework helped. Yet rather than empowering teachers to find what works best for their students, the policy imposes a flat, across-the-board rule.

At the same time, the policy addresses none of the truly thorny questions about homework. If the district finds homework to be unimportant to its students’ academic achievement, it should move to reduce or eliminate the assignments, not make them count for almost nothing. Conversely, if should account for a significant portion of the grade. Meanwhile, this policy does nothing to ensure that the homework students receive is meaningful or appropriate to their age and the subject, or that teachers are not assigning more than they are willing to review and correct.

The homework rules should be put on hold while the shool board, which is responsible for setting educational policy, looks into the matter and conducts public hearings. It is not too late for L.A. Unified to do homework right.

 

21. It is implied in paragraph 1 that nowadays homework____.

[A] is receiving more criticism

[B]is no longer an educational ritual

[C]is not required for advanced courses

[D]is gaining more preferences

 

22. L.A.Unified has made the rule about homework mainly because poor students_____.

[A] tend to have moderate expectations for their education

[B]have asked for a different educational standard

[C]may have problems finishing their homework

[D]have voiced their complaints about homework

 

23. According to Paragraph3’one problem with the policy is that it may____.

[A]discourage students from doing homework

[B]result in students’ indifference to their report cards

[C]undermine the authority of state tests

[D]restrict teachers’ power in education

 

24. As mentioned in Paragraph4 akey question unanswered about homework is_____.

[A] it should be eliminated

[B] it counts much in schooling

[C] it places extra burdens on teachers

[D] it is important for grades

 

25. A suitable title for this text could be____.

[A] wrong Interpretations of an Educational Policy

[B] A Welcomed Policy for Poor Students

[C] Thorny Questions about Homework

[D] A Faulty Approach to Homework

Text 2

Pretty in pink: adult women do not remember being so obsessed with the colour, yet it is pervasive in our young girls’ lives. It is not that pink is intrinsically bad, but it is such a tiny slice of the rainbow and, though it may celebrate girlhood in one way, it also repeatedly and firmly fuses girls’ identity to appearance. Then it presents that connection, even among two-year-olds, between girls as not only innocent but as evidence of innocence. Looking around, I despaired at the singular lack of imagination about girls’ lives and interests.

Girls’ attraction to pink may seem unavoidable, somehow encoded in their DNA, but according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American Studies, it is not. Children were not colour-coded at all until the early 20th century, in the era before domestic washing machines all babies wore white as a practical matter, since the only way of getting clothes clean was to boil them. What’s more, both boys and girls wore what were thought of as gender-neutral dresses. When nursery colours were introduced, pink was actually considered the more masculine colour, a pastel version of red, which was associated with strength. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, symbolized femininity. It was not until the mid-1980s,when amplifying age and sex differences became a dominant children’s marketing strategy, that pink fully came into its own, when it began to seem inherently attractive to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few critical years.

I had not realized how profoundly marketing trends dictated our perception of what is natural to kids, including our core beliefs about their psychological development. Take the toddler. I assumed that phase was something experts developed after years of research into children’s behavior: wrong. Turns out, according to Daniel Cook, a historian of childhood consumerism, it was popularized as a marketing trick by clothing manufacturers in the 1930s.

Trade publications counseled department stores that, in order to increase sales, they should create a “third stepping stone” between infant wear and older kids’ clothes. It was only after “toddler” became a common shoppers’ term that it evolved into a broadly accepted developmental stage. Splitting kids, or adults, into ever-tinier categories has proved a sure-fire way to boost profits. And one of the easiest ways to segment a market is to magnify gender differences-or invent them where they did not previously exist.

 

26.By saying “it is … the rainbow” (Line3, Para.1), the author means pink____.

[A]should not be the sole representation of girlhood

[B]should not be associated with girls’ innocence

[C]cannot explain girls’ lack of imagination

[D]cannot influence girls’ lives and interests

 

27. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true of colours?

[A] Colours are encoded in girls’ DNA.

[B] Blue used to be regarded as the colour for girls.

[C] Pink used to be a neutral colour in symbolising genders.

[D] White is preferred by babies.

 

28. The author suggests that our perception of children’s psychological development was much influenced by_____.

[A]the marketing of products for children

[B]the observation of children’s nature

[C]researches into children’s behaviour

[D]studies of childhood consumption

 

29. We may learn from paragraph 4 that department stores were advised to____.

[A]focus on infant wear and older kids’ clothes

[B]attach equal importance to different genders

[C]classify consumers into smaller groups

[D]create some common shoppers’ terms

 

30. It can be concluded that girls’ attraction to pink seems to be____.

[A]clearly explained by their inborn tendency

[B]fully understood by clothing manufacturers

[C]mainly imposed by profit-driven businessmen

[D]well interpreted by psychological experts

Text 3

In2010, a federal judge shookAmerica’s biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were patented .But in March2012 ajudge ruled that genes were

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